Research > Search Term: "virus"


Common Generic Names
  • Electrolytically Generated Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl)
  • Neutral Electrolyzed Water (NEW)
  • Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water (EOW)
  • Electro-chemically Activated Water (ECA)
  • Super-oxidized water (SOW)


Results: 13 published articles


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Microbe(s): Murine Norovirus surrogate for Human Norovirus


The EcoloxTech 240 system was used to generate a 50 ppm electrolyzed water solution of hypochlorous acid at pH 8 (25% solution of HOCl). Ceramic tile which had been innoculated with Murine Norovirus was treated with the hypochlorous acid solution for a contact time of 1 minute resulting in a 4-log reduction of Murine Norovirus.


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Microbe(s): Murine Norovirus surrogate for Human Norovirus


The EcoloxTech 240 system was used to generate a 50 ppm electrolyzed water solution of hypochlorous acid at pH 5 (99% solution of HOCl). Ceramic tile which had been innoculated with Murine Norovirus was treated with the hypochlorous acid solution for a contact time of 1 minute resulting in a 5-log reduction of Murine Norovirus.


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Microbe(s): Avian influenza


Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5 fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5 FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level.


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Microbe(s): Newcastle disease virus, Avian avulavirus


Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.


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Microbe(s): MNV-1, Norovirus, HAV, Hepatitis A


The ability of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AEO) and neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEO) to inactivate the murine norovirus (MNV-1) surrogate for human norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in suspension and on stainless steel coupons in the presence of organic matter was investigated. Viruses containing tryptone (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0) were mixed with AEO and NEO for 1 min. In addition, stainless steel coupons containing MNV-1 with or without organic matter were treated with AEO or NEO for 3, 5, and 10 min. AEO was proven effective and generally killed more MNV-1 and HAV in suspension than NEO. Depending on the EO water generator, free chlorine concentrations are required to inactivate MNV-1 and HAV by 3-log PFU/mL or greater ranged from 30 mg/L to 40 mg/L after a 1 min contact time. The virucidal effect increased with increasing free chlorine concentration and decreased with increasing tryptone concentration in suspension. Both AEO and NEO at 70100 mg/L of free chlorine concentration significantly reduced MNV-1 on coupons in the absence of organic matter. However, there was no significant difference between these two treatments in the presence of organic matter. In addition, the efficacy of these two EO waters on stainless steel coupons increased with the increasing treatment time. Results indicated that AEO and NEO can reduce MNV-1 and HAV in suspension. However, higher free chlorine concentrations and longer treatment times may be necessary to reduce viruses on contact surfaces or in the presence of organic matter.


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Microbe(s): avian influenza virus


The virucidal effects of two types of electrolyzed water, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on avian influenza viruses were studied. Virus titers of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus and the low-pathogenic H9N2 virus irreversibly decreased by >5-log at 1 min after the viruses were mixed with NEW containing 43 ppm free available chlorine (FAC), but not with NEW containing <17 ppm FAC. The minimum concentration of FAC for a virucidal effect of NEW was estimated at around 40 ppm. In contrast, the virus titers decreased by >5 log at 1 min after the viruses were mixed with AEW, in which the concentration of the FAC ranged from 72 to 0 ppm. Thus, the virucidal effect of AEW did not depend on the presence of FAC. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplified fragments of the M and NP genes, but not the complete M gene, from RNA extracted from the AEW-inactivated virus. Moderate morphological changes were found under the electron microscope, although no changes were observed in the electrophoresed proteins of the AEW-inactivated virus. No viral genes were amplified from the RNA extracted from the NEW-inactivated virus, regardless of the length of the targeted genes. No viral particles were detected under the electron microscope and no viral proteins were detected by electrophoresis for the NEW-inactivated virus. Thus, this study demonstrated potent virucidal effects of AEW and NEW and differences in the virucidal mechanism of the two types of electrolyzed water.


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Microbe(s): porcine reproductive virus, respiratory syndrome virus


Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0 6.5) is a novel disinfectant with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination properties which could have significant utility on farm. Two of the most important pathogenic viruses in pigs are porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the viricidal effectiveness of SAEW against PRRSV and PRV in vitro under different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs, 30, 50 and 70 mg/L), treatment times (5, 10 and 15 min) and temperatures (4, 20, 40 and 60 C), respectively. SAEW had a strong viricidal activity against both PRRSV and PRV. This activity increased with increasing ACC, treatment time and temperature. PRRSV and PRV titres of 7.0 log10 TCID50/mL and 5.9 log10 TCID50/mL, respectively, were completely inactivated by SAEW at an ACC of 50 mg/L for 10 min even though SAEW had no negative effect on the host cells. SAEW thus shows promise as a disinfectant for use on pig farms to reduce the spread of both PRRSV and PRV, and to limit the morbidity associated with those viruses.


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Microbe(s): Viruses, Norovirus


Noroviruses (NVs) are the most frequent cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in common settings, with surface-mediated transfer via contact with fecally contaminated surfaces implicated in exposure. NVs are environmentally stable and persistent and have a low infectious dose. Several disinfectants have been evaluated for efficacy to control viruses on surfaces, but the toxicity and potential damage to treated materials limits their applicability. Sterilox hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solution (HAS) has shown broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity while being suitable for general use. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of HAS to reduce NV both in aqueous suspensions and on inanimate carriers. HOCl was further tested as a fog to decontaminate large spaces. HOCl effectiveness was evaluated using nonculturable human NV measured by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and two surrogate viruses, coliphage MS2 and murine NV, that were detected by both infectivity and RT-PCR. Exposing virus-contaminated carriers of ceramic tile (porous) and stainless steel (nonporous) to 20 to 200 ppm of HOCl solution resulted in 99.9% ( 3 log10) reductions of both infectivity and RNA titers of tested viruses within 10 min of exposure time. HOCl fogged in a confined space reduced the infectivity and RNA titers of NV, murine NV, and MS2 on these carriers by at least 99.9% (3 log10), regardless of carrier location and orientation. We conclude that HOCl solution as a liquid or fog is likely to be effective in disinfecting common settings to reduce NV exposures and thereby control virus spread via fomites.


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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count, Hepatitis B Virus


Background and Aim: Two percent glutaraldehyde, the most widely used liquid chemical germicide (LCG), may be hazardous to patients and medical personnel. Alternatives to glutaraldehyde, such as electrolyzed acid water (EAW), are being developed, but data from well-controlled studies with patient-used endoscopes are rare. The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the high-level disinfection capability of EAW and compare it with glutaraldehyde. Methods: A random sample of 125 endoscopes was collected immediately after upper endoscopic examination. After careful manual cleaning, endoscopes were divided into a glutaraldehyde and EAW group. After the disinfection procedure, samples from working channel (S-1), insertion tube (S-2), umbilical cord (S-3), and angulation knob (S-4) were taken and cultured. Another twenty endoscopes were experimentally contaminated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and samples were collected after contamination (T-1), after manual cleaning (T-2), and after final disinfection (T-3). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HBV-DNA was performed. Results: In the EAW group, culture-positive rates were 3.2% in S-1, 9.5% in S-2, 3.2% in S-3, and 27.0% in the S-4 samples. There was no significant difference between the EAW and glutaraldehyde groups for all sampling sites. However, in both groups, disinfection of the angulation knobs (S-4) was less efficient than the others. For the T-1 site, HBV-DNA was detected from all of them, and in 95% (19/20) of T-2. However, HBV-DNA was not detected from T-3 samples. Conclusions: Electrolyzed acid water is as efficient as glutaraldehyde in eliminating bacteria from patient-used endoscopes. After disinfection procedures using both methods, HBV-DNA was not detected from any endoscopes experimentally contaminated with HBV-positive mixed sera. However, some bacteria may remain on the surface of the endoscopes. Therefore, more careful precleaning of the endoscopes may help achieve high-level disinfection in the clinical setting.


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Microbe(s): Viruses, HIV


Electrolyzed products of a sodium chloride solution contain free residual chlorine and have been proved to be effective for disinfection. Electrolyzed strong acid water containing a low sodium chloride concentration (ESW-L) is prepared by the electrolysis of a solution containing a low sodium chloride concentration (0.1% or less). Although ESW-L has been confirmed to be an effective disinfectant, disinfective efficacy against dried HIV-1 and a target of ESW-L against HIV-1 have not been clarified. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the efficacy of ESW-L against dried HIV-1 which relatively resists disinfection and to analyze disinfection target. We demonstrated that ESWL inactivated the infectivity of dried HIV-1. In the analysis of the mechanism of disinfection, although the HIV-1 structural protein, p24 within the virus particle, was not inactivated by ESW-L, the enzymatic activity of reverse transcriptase (RT) and genomic RNA within the particle, however, were inactivated after the treatment with ESW-L. These findings suggest that the enzymatic activity of RT and genomic RNA are the target of ESW-L.


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Microbe(s): Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus


Background: It is well known that strongly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has a potent bactericidal effect. We examined residual viruses on endoscopes that were used in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive patients and evaluated the effectiveness of SAEW in cleaning/disinfecting the endoscopes. Methods: A random sample of endoscopes used in 109 endoscopies on HBV-positive patients and 107 endoscopies on HCV-positive patients, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for various reasons was taken to determine the degree of HBV and HCV contamination. Samples were taken using 10 mL of physiological saline injected through the forceps channel of each endoscope and collected at the distal end to be assayed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After examination, each endoscope was treated with air aspiration, then 200 mL of tap water that contained an enzyme detergent was absorbed, and SAEW was aspirated after cleaning with a brush. After each procedure, PCR was used for comparison and to identify any residual viruses. Results: In saline collected after air aspiration, viruses were detected in 39/109 endoscopes used in HBV patients and in 20/107 endoscopes used in HCV patients. In the saline aspirated with tap water containing an enzyme detergent, HBV was detected in 12/109 endoscopes and HCV was detected in 6/107 endoscopes. However, neither HBV nor HCV was detected after the endoscopes were cleaned manually with a brush and disinfected with SAEW. Conclusion: Endoscopes contaminated with HBV and HCV are effectively cleaned and disinfected by SAEW.


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Microbe(s): Viruses, Hepatitis B Virus, HIV


Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained from the positive well. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and free chlorine content of the product were 1053 mV, pH 2.34 and 4.20 ppm, respectively. The products modified the antigenicity of the surface protein of HBV as well as the infectivity of HIV in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Although the inactivating potential was decreased by the addition of contaminating protein, recycling of the product or continuous addition of fresh product may restore the complete disinfection against bloodborne pathogens.


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Microbe(s): Viruses, Hepadnavirus


Glutaraldehyde is used as a disinfectant for endoscopes, but is an irritant and so should be replaced by an alternative. Electrolysed acid water (EAW) has a bactericidal effect, and an endoscopic washing device using EAW has been developed in Japan. To investigate the effect of EAW on the infectivity of viruses, we treated duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), which has similar properties to hepatitis B virus, with EAW, and determined the number of remaining infectious virus particles in a bioassay system. One-day-old Pekin ducks were inoculated with duck serum containing 105.5 ID50 DHBV; the serum had previously been incubated with 100 volumes of EAW or ion-exchanged water at room temperature for 7 min. DHBV infection was indicated by detection of viral DNA in duck serum samples 1 8 weeks after inoculation. Treatment of serum with EAW diminished DHBV infectivity whereas treatment with ion-exchanged water did not. The virus load was estimated to have been reduced to 101 103 ID50 during the first 1 min and to <100.5 ID50 in the next 6 min of incubation when compared with the control. Thus, EAW directly inactivates DHBV and its clinical application is recommended.