Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O104: H4, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
This study investigated the effect of electrolyzed water on pathogenic bacteria cell suspensions. Specifically, we evaluated the efficacy of strong and weak acidic electrolyzed waters (SACEW, WACEW) and strong and weak alkaline electrolyzed waters (SALEW, WALEW) on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hyificantly more resistant to ALEW compared to ACEW. Results also show that the bactericidal activity of SACEW (20 mg/mL ACC) was more effective than WACEW (10 mg/mL ACC) in terms of inactivating E. coli O104:H4. Alkaline-electrolyzed waters were found to reduce cell numbers by 13 log (P < 0.05). However, alkaline electrolyzed water was less effective (P < 0.05) than acidic electrolyzed treatment.
Microbe(s): Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-derived illness in China and a possible mechanism leading to illness is cross contamination of cooked shrimp. The objective of this study was to establish a mathematical model of the inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus on cooked shrimp by acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) as a function of three variables (NaCl concentration to electrolysis, X1; treatment time, X2; treatment temperature, X3) and to define priority factors which can significantly enhance the bactericidal efficiency to reduce the risk of illness caused by V. parahaemolyticus. The combined effects of NaCl concentration (0.7 2.4 g/L), treatment time (3.6 10.4 min) and temperature (23 57 C) on Log reductions of V. parahaemolyticus on cooked shrimp were investigated according to a central composite design, and the Log reductions were modeled using a response surface model. The result showed the established RS model had a goodness of fitting quantified by the parameters of R2 (0.982), lack of fit test (p > 0.05), the root-mean-squares error (RMSE = 0.15), the accuracy factor (Af = 1.10) and bias factor (Bf = 0.99). The model was validated with additional random 8 conditions within the range of the experimental domain. It showed that the established RS model possessed a good performance and suitability approved by RMSE (0.43), Af (1.28) and Bf (1.19). Moreover, the effects of the independent variable and their interactions on response value were ranked as X3 = X32 >> X1X3 > X2 > X1 according to Pareto charts and response surface plots analysis. The present work could serve as useful tools for predicting the inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus on cooked shrimp by AEW.
Microbe(s): Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibriovulnificus cause severe foodborne illness in humans; thus, to reduce outbreaks of disease, it is clearly important to reduce food contamination by these pathogens. Although electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been reported to exhibit strong bactericidal activities against many pathogens, it has never been tested against V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW), a type of EO water, against V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. Cell suspensions and cell cultures of both pathogens were treated for 30 s with sodium hypochlorite solution containing 35 mg/L available chlorine concentration (ACC) or WAEW containing 35 mg/L ACC. After an initial inoculum of 5.7 log CFU/mL, the number of viable V. vulnificus cells was reduced by 2.2 logs after treatment for 60 s with sodium hypochlorite solution containing 35 mg/L ACC, while no cells survived treatment with WAEW for 30 s. Similar results were obtained for V. parahaemolyticus. Under open storage conditions, WAEW maintained bactericidal activities against cell suspensions of both strains after 5 weeks but disappeared against cell cultures of the two strains after 5 weeks. Under closed storage conditions, however, WAEW maintained bactericidal activities against both cell suspensions and cell cultures of each strain after 5 weeks. No cells were detected in the cell suspensions and cultures when the ACC of WAEW was more than 20 mg/L and treatment time was greater than 15 s. Bactericidal activity of WAEW against V. vulnificus cell culture was reduced when the ACC of WAEW was less than 15 mg/L but was maintained in the V. vulnificus cell suspension when the ACC of WAEW was 0.5 mg/L. Thus, the bactericidal activity of WAEW was primarily affected by ACC rather than treatment time. Similar results were obtained for V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that WAEW kills these microorganisms more quickly than a chemical product such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), even at equivalent ACCs.
Microbe(s): Vibrio parahaemolyticus
AIM: To determine the efficacy of electrolysed oxidizing (EO) water in inactivating Vibrio parahaemolyticus on kitchen cutting boards and food contact surfaces. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cutting boards (bamboo, wood and plastic) and food contact surfaces (stainless steel and glazed ceramic tile) were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus. Viable cells of V. parahaemolyticus were detected on all cutting boards and food contact surfaces after 10 and 30 min, respectively, at room temperatures. Soaking inoculated food contact surfaces and cutting boards in distilled water for 1 and 3 min, respectively, resulted in various reductions of V. parahaemolyticus, but failed to remove the organism completely from surfaces. However, the treatment of EO water [pH 2.7, chlorine 40 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential 1151 mV] for 30, 45, and 60 s, completely inactivated V. parahaemolyticus on stainless steel, ceramic tile, and plastic cutting boards, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: EO water could be used as a disinfecting agent for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus on plastic and wood cutting boards and food contact surfaces. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Rinsing the food contact surfaces with EO water or soaking cutting boards in EO water for up to 5 min could be a simple strategy to reduce cross-contamination of V. parahaemolyticus during food preparation.
Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
For reducing bacterial contamination, electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) has been used to reduce microbial population on seafood and platform of fish retailer. The specimens of tilapia were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and then soaked into EO water for up to 10 min. EO water achieved additional 0.7 log CFU/cm2 reduction than tap water on E. coli after 1 min treatment and additional treatment time did not achieved additional reduction. EO water treatment also reduced V. parahaemolyticus, by 1.5 log CFU/cm2 after 5 min treatment and achieved 2.6 log CFU/cm2 reduction after 10 min. The pathogenic bacteria were not detected in EO water after soaking treatment. In addition, EO water could effectively disinfect the platform of fish retailer in traditional markets and fish markets.