Particulate matter (PM) concentrations are high in cage-free aviary hen houses due to accumulation of litter on the floor and hen activities. The of a spraying agent such as acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) to mitigate PM levels and disinfect houses has been reported, and high spray dosages will reduce PM to a low level. However, spraying a high dose of AEW may generate high levels of ammonia (NH3) due to an increase in litter moisture content (LMC). Lab-scale experiments were conducted to assess the effect of AEW spray dosage and pH on PM and NH3 emissions from the litter of aviary hen houses. Four dynamic emission chambers (DECs) located in an environmentally controlled room were used for the evaluation. Three spray dosages of 25, 50, and 75 mL kg-1 dry litter d-1 (equivalent to area application rates of 125, 250, and 375 mL m-2, respectively) and three pH values of 3, 5, and 7 at a free-chlorine concentration of 200 mg L-1 were tested. Spraying occurred within 10 min once a day for five consecutive days. A no-spray regimen was used as the control. The results showed that higher spray dosages of AEW led to lower PM emissions. In particular, spraying dosages of 25, 50, and 75 mL kg-1 dry litter d-1 reduced PM levels by (mean SD) 71% 3%, 81% 1%, and 89% 1%, respectively, immediately after spraying. The PM reductions were still significant 24 h after spraying, averaging 57% 4%, 71% 5%, and 83% 1%, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.30 to 0.43) in reduction efficiency among the PM sizes (i.e., PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and total suspended particulates). For NH3 emissions, spraying 75 mL kg-1 dry litter d-1 generated 5 to 6 times greater NH3 emissions when compared to 25 mL kg-1 dry litter d-1 due to the difference in LMC (22.6% vs. 13.0%). Meanwhile, spraying AEW of pH 7 yielded 2 to 3 times higher NH3 emissions than AEW of pH 3 at the same dosage. Ammonia emissions of all spray treatments were found to be higher than that of the control, albeit no significant difference between the control and the 25 mL kg-1 dry litter d-1 dosage at pH 3 or pH 5 (p = 0.81 and 0.47, respectively). Pearson correlation coefficients between NH3 and spray dosage (0.82) and pH value (0.46) indicated that spray dosage is more linearly correlated to NH3 emissions than pH value (p < 0.05). The results suggest that a 25 mL kg-1 dry litter d-1 dosage at pH 3 is a prudent combination to control PM levels without causing undesired elevation in NH3 emissions in litter-based cage-free aviary hen houses. This lab-based finding provides the basis for field verification testing.
Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella Infantis
The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels (2.6 log10 CFU/ml) within 5 sec of exposure. In addition, SAHW antibacterial capacity was evaluated by spraying it using a nebulizer into a box containing these bacteria, which were present on the surfaces of glass plates and rayon sheets. SAHW was able to inactivate both bacterial species on the glass plates (dry condition) and rayon sheets within 5 min spraying and 5 min contact times, with the exception of 50 ppm SAHW on the rayon sheets. Furthermore, a corrosivity test determined that SAHW does not corrode metallic objects, even at the longest exposure times (83 days). Our findings demonstrate that SAHW is a good candidate for biosecurity enhancement in the poultry industry. Spraying it on the surfaces of objects, eggshells, egg incubators and transport cages could reduce the chances of contamination and disease transmission. These results augment previous findings demonstrating the competence of SAHW as an anti-viral disinfectant.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) spray has been considered as a novel approach for airborne bacteria reduction in animal housing. This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of SAEW spray based on the size distribution of sprayed aerosols, the available chlorine travelling loss in sprayed aerosols, and the reduction efficiency of airborne culturable bacteria (CB). The optimized operating parameters were the nozzle orifice diameter and the spray pressure. The size distribution 50) 60-90 m) are recommended for SAEW spray in animal housing.
Microbe(s): Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus
In the dairy industry, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces are important issues and development of innovative strategies may improve food safety. This study was aimed to optimize the combined effect of alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) as s were significantly affected by surface roughness electropolished SSP required 10 min, 100 mg/L AEW at 30 C, whereas SSP without modification required 30 min, 300 mg/L AEW at 30 C. From confirmatory tests cells removed were 3.90 0.25 log CFU/cm2 for electropolished SSP, and 3.20 0.20 log CFU/cm2 for SSP without modification. NEW is non-corrosive, and can be advantageously used for environmentally friendly cleaning and disinfection processes.
Microbe(s): Avian influenza
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5 fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5 FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level.
Microbe(s): Newcastle disease virus, Avian avulavirus
Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.
Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) are the source of a number of environmental issues. Wet spray scrubbers using non-acidic solutions might be a new approach for NH3 mitigation from AFOs. A lab-scale spray scrubber was built to clean 0.024 m3 s-1 of an NH3/air mixture with an average NH3 concentration of 20 ppmv. Three variables including contact time, nozzle type, and scrubbing solution were investigated to evaluate their effects on the ammonia removal efficiency of the scrubber. The contact times were to 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 s, which were achieved by changing the elevation of the spray nozzle. Two types of spray nozzles were studied. The nozzles had full-cone spray patterns with different spray angles and different the scrubbing solution.
Microbe(s): Escherichia coli
In the wake of discussion about the of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for ncy of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates.
Microbe(s): Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus
The efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs was evaluated and compared to chlorine dioxide (CD), acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and NaClO solution. The eggs were artificially inoculated with S. enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus and sprayed or immersed with SAEW, alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) followed by SAEW (AlEWSAEW), CD, AEW and NaClO solution, respectively. The effect of SAEW on the natural microbiota of shell eggs was also determined. Spraying shell eggs with SAEW, CD and NaClO solution at an ACC of 60 mg/L had no significant bactericidal difference for foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs, and the difference of disinfection effect between SAEW and AEW was not significant, whereas the bactericidal activity of SAEW for E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, total aerobic bacteria and moulds and yeasts was significantly higher than that of CD and NaClO solution at ACCs of 80 or 100 mg/L. SAEW was found to be more effective when used in conjunction with AlEW, and higher reductions were obtained with the immersion treatment. Results indicate that the disinfectant efficiency of SAEW is equivalent to or higher than that of chlorine dioxide and NaClO solution and therefore SAEW shows the potential to be used for sanitization of egg shells as an environmentally friendly disinfection agent.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
Spray-application of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW) is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC – the major germicidal component in MLAEW) over distance during spraying, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The anti-microbial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MLAEW was prepared at two FC concentrations: app. 15 and 60 mg L , and sprayed at three air temperatures (18, 25, 32 C). The original MLAEW solution and MLAEW aerosols collected at 0, 25, and 50 cm from the spray nozzle were analyzed for FC concentrations. Bacteria were immersed into these MLAEW samples and numerated for viable count after 0.5, 2 and 5-min treatments. RESULTS: MLAEW aerosols collected at 0 cm lost 11.7-13.2% FC, compared with the original MLAEW solution. This initial loss was affected neither by the initial FC concentration (P = 0.13) nor by air temperature (P = 0.57). The rate of FC loss during travelling was 0.79-0.87 % per cm of aerosol travel distance (% cm ) at 18 C, 1.08-1.15 % cm at 25 C, and 1.35-1.49% cm at 32 C. This travelling loss was affected by air temperature (P = 0.02), but not by initial FC concentration (P = 0.38). Bacteria were completely inactivated at 0.5 min when treated with MLAEW samples with FC > 16.8 mg L , in 2 min when FC > 13.8 mg L , and in 5 min when FC > 7.2 mg L . CONCLUSION: Airborne bacteria from aviary hen house can be effectively inactivated by MLAEW with adequate FC concentration and contact time. During spraying, the anti-microbial efficacy of MLAEW aerosols decreased over distance due to FC loss which exacerbated at higher air temperatures.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
Reducing airborne microorganisms may potentially improve the environment in layer breeding houses. The effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW; pH 5.29 6.30) in reducing airborne microorganisms was investigated in a commercial layer house in northern China. The building had a tunnel-ventilation system, with an evaporative cooling. The experimental area was divided into five zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to an evaporative cooling pad and zone 5 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, dust concentration, and microbial population were measured at the sampling points in the five zones during the study period. The SAEW was sprayed by workers in the whole house. A six-stage air microbial sampler was used to measure airborne microbial population. Results showed that the population of airborne bacteria and fungi were sharply reduced by 0.71 105 and 2.82 103 colony-forming units (CFU) m 3 after 30 min exposure to SAEW, respectively. Compared with the benzalkonium chloride (BC) solution and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) solution treatments, the population reductions of airborne fungi treated by SAEW were significantly (P < 0.05) more, even though the three disinfectants can decrease both the airborne bacteria and fungi significantly (P < 0.05) 30 min after spraying.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
Compared to conventional cage laying-hen houses, aviary hen houses generally have much higher concentrations of airborne dust and bacteria due to generation of bioaerosols by the hens access to and activities on the litter floor. Hence, reducing these airborne agents is important to safeguard the health of the animals and workers in such housing systems. Spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is a novel approach to reducing airborne culturable bacteria (CB) and particulate matter (PM) levels in hen houses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of reducing airborne CB and PM in an experimental aviary chamber by periodic spraying of SAEW (Trt), as compared to no spraying (Ctrlns) or spraying of tap water (Ctrlw). The hens were provided 16 h light and 8 h dark (lights on at 6:00 h and off at 22:00 h) and were given access to the litter floor from 12:00 h to 22:00 h. The Trt regimen sprayed SAEW at 14:00 h for 15 min at a dosage of 80 mL m-2; the Ctrlns regimen had no spraying; and the Ctrlw regimen sprayed tap water following the same procedure as with Trt. Concentrations of airborne CB and PM in six aerodynamic size ranges (0.65-1.1, 1.1-2.1, 2.1-3.3, 3.3-4.7, 4.7-7.1, and >7.1 m) were measured at 1.5 m above the floor in the center of the room during the periods of 13:45-14:00 h and 14:45-15:00 h. Compared to Ctrlns, spraying SAEW significantly reduced airborne CB (>2.1 m) by up to 49% 10% (p < 0.05), while Ctrlw did not show a reduction effect. No significant difference was found between Trt and Ctrlw in reducing airborne PM, although both reduced or tended to suppress PM >7.1 m in size. The results show that spraying SAEW can inactivate airborne CB attached to PM. Thus, this is a promising technique for alleviating the adverse health impacts of bioaerosols in aviary laying-hen housing systems.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
Spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been considered as a potential approach to reduce airborne bacteria in laying-hen houses. In this study, the effects of spraying SAEW on airborne bacterial reduction were investigated in a laying-hen house as compared with using diluted didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB). Averaged air temperature reduced by approximate 1 C and average relative humidity increased by 3% at a stable ventilation rate (about 2.5 m3 hr 1 per bird) in the laying-hen house 30 min after spraying (120 mL m 2). Compared with the control without spraying, the airborne bacterial concentration was reduced by about 0.70 and 0.37 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) m 3 in the 4 hr after spraying 120 mL m 2 SAEW (available chlorine concentration [ACC] of 156 mg L 1) and diluted DDAB (active compound concentration of 167 mg L 1), respectively. Compared with spraying diluted DDAB, spraying SAEW was determined to be more effective for reducing airborne bacterial in laying-hen houses. The effects of spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house increased with the increasing available chlorine concentrations for SAEW (156, 206, 262 mg L 1) and increasing active compound concentrations for diluted DDAB (167, 333, 500 mg L 1), respectively. Spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB with two levels of spraying volumes (120 and 90 mL m 2) both showed significant differences on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house (P < 0.05).
Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella
To evaluate the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water (SAEW, pH 625653), a new environmental friendly agent for inactivating micro-organisms adhered to the facility and aerosolized in the air of the swine barns and to explore the application of SAEW in livestock industries. Methods and Results Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the swine hoair and treated by SAEW. The SAEW solution was flushed onto surfaces and sprayed within the whole swine barn. SAEW with an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 300 mg l1 can inhibit isolated microbes completely. The usage of SAEW (300 mg l1) resulted in a significant (P < 005) reduction in microbes on the wall, rail and floor after flushing disinfection. Additionally, spraying SAEW at an ACC of 300 mg l1 reduced 59 of the airborne organisms in 30 min and kept the population of microbes at a reduced level for at least 8 h. SAEW treatment also reduced pathogens on surfaces (P < 003) after spraying disinfection except on the surface of the wall. Conclusions SAEW may be a potential alternative disinfectant to reduce infections in swine barns Significance and Impact of the Study The results of this study provide information on the antimicrobial efficiency of SAEW on the airborne bacteria and fungi in swine barns.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
Lots of microorganisms exist in layer houses can cause bird diseases and worker health concerns. Spraying chemical disinfectants is an effective way to decontaminate pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in poultry houses. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0 6.5) is an ideal, environmentally friendly broad-spectrum disinfectant to prevent and control bacterial or viral infection in layer farms. The purpose of this work was to investigate the cleaning effectiveness of SAEW for inactivating the microbes in layer houses. The effect of SAEW was evaluated by solid materials and surface disinfection in a hen house. Results indicate that SAEW with an available chlorine concentration of 250 mg/L, pH value of 6.19, and oxygen reduction potential of 974 mV inactivated 100% of bacteria and fungi in solid materials (dusts, feces, feather, and feed), which is more efficient than common chemical disinfectant such as benzalkonium chloride solution (1:1,000 vol/vol) and povidone-iodine solution (1:1,000 vol/vol). Also, it significantly reduced the microbes on the equipment or facility surfaces (P < 0.05), including floor, wall, feed trough, and water pipe surfaces. Moreover, SAEW effectively decreased the survival rates of Salmonella and Escherichia coli by 21 and 16 percentage points. In addition, spraying the target with tap water before disinfection plays an important role in spray disinfection.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
The hides of cattle are the primary source of pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 that contaminate preevisceration carcasses during commercial beef processing. A number of interventions that reduce hide contamination and subsequent carcass contamination are currently being developed. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of ozonated and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) waters to decontaminate beef hides and to compare these treatments with similar washing in water without the active antimicrobial compounds. Cattle hides draped over barrels were used as the model system. Ozonated water (2 ppm) was applied at 4,800 kPa (700 lb in2) and 15 C for 10 s. Alkaline EO water and acidic EO water were sequentially applied at 60 C for 10 s at 4,800 and 1,700 kPa (250 lb in2), respectively. Treatment using ozonated water reduced hide aerobic plate counts by 2.1 log CFU/100 cm2 and reduced Enterobacteriaceae counts by 3.4 log CFU/100 cm2. EO water treatment reduced aerobic plate counts by 3.5 log CFU/100 cm2 and reduced Enterobacteriaceae counts by 4.3 log CFU/100 cm2. Water controls that matched the wash conditions of the ozonated and EO treatments reduced aerobic plate counts by only 0.5 and 1.0 log CFU/100 cm2, respectively, and each reduced Enterobacteriaceae counts by 0.9 log CFU/100 cm2. The prevalence of E. coli O157 on hides was reduced from 89 to 31% following treatment with ozonated water and from 82 to 35% following EO water treatment. Control wash treatments had no significant effect on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. These results demonstrate that ozonated and EO waters can be used to decontaminate hides during processing and may be viable treatments for significantly reducing pathogen loads on beef hides, thereby reducing pathogens on beef carcasses.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count, Total Aerobic Bacteria, Coliforms, Escherichia coli
The effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing anode (EOA) water (oxidation-reduction potential, 1,120 mV; pH 2.0) as a sanitizer for use in abattoirs was compared with the iodophor (IOD) Mikroklene (25 ppm), a sanitizer approved for use by regulatory authorities in Canada and the United States. A total of 240 swab (100 cm2) samples were obtained from 4 sites on the kill floor and 16 sites in the secondary processing areas, during two visits within a 4-week period to each of three meat packing plants, processing < or =50 animals per week. Swabs were obtained 12 h after the application of IOD and EOA and were analyzed for the presence of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, and total Escherichia coli. Total aerobic bacteria (log CFU/ 100 cm2) recovered from the 20 sample sites were lower (P < 0.0001) in EOA as compared with IOD (2.94 +/- 0.12 versus 3.75 +/- 0.12, respectively). Plant A was 1.5 times more likely (P < 0.0001) to have a sampling site positive for the presence of coliforms and E. coli than plants B and C. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatment IOD or EOA in the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for the presence of total coliforms or E. coli among the three plants. When the kill floor and secondary processing areas are compared, the likelihood of obtaining a sample positive for coliforms or E. coli was similar (P > or = 0.05). Results indicate that EOA was more effective than IOD in reducing populations of total aerobic bacteria on equipment surfaces in the three meat packing plants studied. Because the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for coliforms or E. coli in EOA as compared with IOD was similar, EOA may be a suitable alternative or complement to IOD as a sanitizer in small- to medium-sized abattoirs. Additional research is required to further evaluate the effectiveness of EOA to sanitize processing equipment on the basis of subsequent isolation of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli from meat products.
Microbe(s): Salmonella enteritidis
The efficiency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) at different temperatures (4, 20 and 45 C) for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and it on the surface of shell eggs was evaluated. The bactericidal activity of SAEW, sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO) and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) to inactivate S. enteritidis was also compared. SAEW with a pH value of 6.0-6.5 used was generated by the electrolysis of a dilute hydrochloric acid (2.4 mM) in a chamber without a membrane. Although the pH value of SAEW was greatly higher than that of AEW (pH2.6-2.7), SAEW had a comparative powerful bactericidal activity at the same available chlorine concentrations. The efficiency of SAEW for inactivation of pure S. enteritidis cultures increased with increasing the available chlorine concentration and treatment time at the three different temperatures. The S. enteritidis counts decreased to less than 1.0 log10 CFU/ml at available chlorine of 2 mg/l and 100% inactivation (reduction of 8.2 log10 CFU/ml) was resulted in using SAEW with available chlorine more than 4 mg/l at 4, 20 and 45 C after 2 min treatment, whereas no reduction was observed in the control samples. Moreover, SAEW was also effective for inactivating the S. enteritidis inoculated on the surface of shell eggs. A reduction of 6.5 log10 CFU/g of S. enteritidis on shell eggs was achieved by SAEW containing 15 mg/l available chlorine for 3 min, but only a reduction of 0.9-1.2 log10 CFU/g for the control samples. No survival of S. enteritidis was recovered in waste wash SAEW after treatment. The findings of this study indicate that SAEW may be a promising disinfectant agent for the shell egg washing processing without environmental pollution.
Microbe(s): Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans
Standards of the German Association of Veterinary Medicine (DVG) for the evaluation of chemical disinfectants were used to assess the anti-microbial efficacy of electrolysed oxidizing water (EOW). Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were exposed to anode EOW (pH, 3.0 0.1; oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), +1100 50 mV; free chlorine, 400 20 mg/l Cl2) and combined EOW (7 : 3 anode : cathode, v/v; pH, 8.3 0.1; ORP, 930 950 mV; free chlorine, 271 20 mg/l Cl2). In water of standardized hardness (WSH), all bacterial strains were completely inactivated by a 30 min exposure to maximum 10.0% anode EOW ( 40.0 mg/l Cl2) or 50.0% combined EOW ( 135.5 mg/l Cl2). The sensitivity ranking order for anode EOW to the bacterial test strains was P. mirabilis > S. aureus > M. avium ssp. avium > E. faecium > P. aeruginosa. P. mirabilis and S. aureus decreased to undetectable levels after 5 min of exposure to 7.5% anode EOW ( 30.0 mg/l Cl2). Candida albicans was completely inactivated by a 5-min exposure to 5.0% anode EOW. Both, anode and combined EOW exhibited no anti-microbial activities in standardized nutrient broth or after addition of 20.0% bovine serum to the WSH. Further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of EOW as a disinfectant under operating conditions in animal production facilities.
Microbe(s): Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
Salmonella spp. may be found in the nest box of breeder chickens, cold egg-storage rooms at the farm, on the hatchery truck, or in the hatchery environment (5). These bacteria may then be spread to fertilized hatching eggs on the shell or, in some cases, may penetrate the shell and reside just beneath the surface of the eggshell.Research has demonstrated that contamination of raw poultry products with Salmonella spp. may be attributable to cross-contamination in the hatchery from Salmonella infected eggs or surfaces to uninfected baby chicks during the hatching process. Cox et al. (6 and 7) reported that broiler and breeder hatcheries were highly contaminated with Salmonella spp. Within the broiler hatchery, 71 percent of eggshell fragments, 80 percent of chick conveyor belts swabs, and 74 percent of pad samples placed under newly hatched chicks contained Salmonella spp. (6).Cason et al. (4) reported that, although fertile hatching eggs were contaminated with high levels of Salmonella typhimurium, they were still able to hatch. The authors stated that paratyphoid salmonellae do not caadverse health affects to the developing and hatching chick. During the hatching process, Salmonella spp. is readily spread throughout the hatching cabinet due to rapid air movement by circulation fans. When eggs were inoculated with a marker strain of Salmonella during hatching, greater than 80 percent of the chicks in the trays above and below the inoculated eggs were contaminated (4). In an earlier study, Cason et al. (3) demonstrated that salmonellae on the exterior of eggs or in eggshell membranes could be transmitted to baby chicks during pipping.Salmonella may persist in hatchery environments for long periods of time. When chick fluff contaminated with Salmonella was held for 4 years at room temperature, up to 1,000,000 Salmonella cells per gram could be recovered from these samples (12).Researchers have demonstrated a link between cross-contamination in the hatchery and contaminated carcasses during processing. Goren et al. (8) isolated salmonellae from three different commercial hatcheries in Europe and reported that the same serotypes found in the hatcheries could be found on processed broiler chicken carcass skin. Proper disinfection of the hatchery environment and fertile hatching eggs, therefore, is essential for reducing Salmonella on ready-to-cook carcasses.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count, Fungi, Yeast, Mold
Bioaerosols in the animal feeding facility might be the potential health risk factors to agricultural workers. A novel on-site membrane-less electrolyzed water(MLEW) generating and fogging-spread system was designed and installed in : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265268194_A_Study_of_Membrane-less_Electrolyzed_Water_fogging-_spread_for_Airborne_Bacteria_and_Fungus_Decontamination_in_Hen_Hoaccessed Feb 27 2018.
The safety of electrolyzed seawater was evaluated by measuring the production rate of organic halogen compounds and the occurrence of reverse mutations. Aquaculture feedwater and wastewater were collected from a fish-culturing facility, and available chlorine of approximately 1.0 mg/L was generated to ensure a disinfectant effect. More than 90% of the generated organic halogen compounds were bromoform. The amount of bromoform was far less than the reference values for drinking water standards in Japan and the U.S., provided that the electrolyzation was performed within the range of normal use. The reverse mutation assay of electrolyzed seawater showed no mutagenicity. Electrolyzed seawater with available chlorine at an adequate level for disinfection can be used safely and effectively in various aspects of aquaculture.
Microbe(s): Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes
The efficacy of acidic electrolyzed (EO) water produced at three levels of total available chlorine (16, 41, and 77 mg/liter) and chlorinated water with 45 and 200 mg/liter of residual chlorine was investigated for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on shell eggs. An increasing reduction in Listeria population was observed with increasing chlorine concentration from 16 to 77 mg/liter and treatment time from 1 to 5 min, resulting in a maximal reduction of 3.70 log CFU per shell egg compared with a deionized water wash for 5 min. There was no significant difference in antibacterial activities against Salmonella and Listeria at the same treatment time between 45 mg/liter of chlorinated water and 14 A acidic EO water treatment (P 0.05). Chlorinated water (200 mg/liter) wash for 3 and 5 min was the most effective treatment; it reduced mean populations of Listeria and Salmonella on inoculated eggs by 4.89 and 3.83 log CFU/shell egg, respectively. However, reductions (log CFU/shell egg) of Listeria (4.39) and Salmonella (3.66) by 1 min alkaline EO water treatment followed by another 1 min of 14 A acidic EO water (41 mg/liter chlorine) treatment had a similar reduction to the 1 min 200 mg/liter chlorinated water treatment for Listeria (4.01) and Salmonella (3.81). This study demonstrated that a combination of alkaline and acidic EO water wash is equivalent to 200 mg/liter of chlorinated water wash for reducing populations of Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes on shell eggs.
Microbe(s): porcine reproductive virus, respiratory syndrome virus
Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0 6.5) is a novel disinfectant with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination properties which could have significant utility on farm. Two of the most important pathogenic viruses in pigs are porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the viricidal effectiveness of SAEW against PRRSV and PRV in vitro under different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs, 30, 50 and 70 mg/L), treatment times (5, 10 and 15 min) and temperatures (4, 20, 40 and 60 C), respectively. SAEW had a strong viricidal activity against both PRRSV and PRV. This activity increased with increasing ACC, treatment time and temperature. PRRSV and PRV titres of 7.0 log10 TCID50/mL and 5.9 log10 TCID50/mL, respectively, were completely inactivated by SAEW at an ACC of 50 mg/L for 10 min even though SAEW had no negative effect on the host cells. SAEW thus shows promise as a disinfectant for use on pig farms to reduce the spread of both PRRSV and PRV, and to limit the morbidity associated with those viruses.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in northern China. A multipoint sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared with the control treatment (without spray), airborne dust level was reduced 34% in the 3 hr after spraying 216 mL m 2 neutral electrolyzed water in the breeding house. The dust concentration was significantly higher during the periods of feed distribution (1.13 0.13 mg m 3) and artificial insemination (0.72 0.13 mg m 3) compared with after spray (0.47 0.09 mg m 3) and during lights-off period (0.29 0.08 mg m 3) in the three consecutive testing days (P < 0.05). The experimental cage area was divided into four zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to the evaporative cooling pad and zone 4 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and dust concentration were measured at the sampling points of the four zones in 3 consecutive days and mortality of the birds for the duration of a month were investigated. The results showed that the air temperature, airflow rate, dust concentration, and number of dead birds increase from zone 1 to zone 4 in the tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house.
Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7
To evaluate the potential of using electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in water for livestock, the effects of water source, electrolyte concentration, dilution, storage conditions, and bacterial or fecal load on the oxidative reduction potential (ORP) and bactericidal activity of EO water were investigated. Anode and combined (7:3 anode:cathode, vol/vol) EO waters reduced the pH and increased the ORP of deionized water, whereas cathode EO water increased pH and lowered ORP. Minimum concentrations (vol/vol) of anode and combined EO waters required to kill 104 CFU/ml planktonic suspensions of E. coli O157:H7 strain H4420 were 0.5 and 2.0%, respectively. Cathode EO water did not inhibit H4420 at concentrations up to 16% (vol/vol). Higher concentrations of anode or combined EO water were required to elevate the ORP of irrigation or chlorinated tap water compared with that of deionized water. Addition of feces to EO water products (0.5% anode or 2.0% combined, vol/vol) significantly reduced (P < 0.001) their ORP values to <700 mV in all water types. A relationship between ORP and bactericidal activity of EO water was observed. The dilute EO waters retained the capacity to eliminate a 104 CFU/ml inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 H4420 for at least 70 h regardless of exposure to UV light or storage temperature (4 versus 24 C). At 95 h and beyond, UV exposure reduced ORP, significantly more so (P < 0.05) in open than in closed containers. Bactericidal activity of EO products (anode or combined) was lost in samples in which ORP value had fallen to 848 mV. When stored in the dark, the diluted EO waters retained an ORP of >848 mV and bactericidal efficacy for at least 125 h; with refrigeration (4 C), these conditions were retained for at least 180 h. Results suggest that EO water may be an effective means by which to control E. coli O157:H7 in livestock water with low organic matter content.
Microbe(s): Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli
Research was conducted to compare the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidative (EO) water applied using an electrostatic spraying system (ESS) for killing populations of bacteria that are of concern to the poultry industry. Populations of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes), and the indicator bacterium Escherichia coli were applied to eggs and allowed to attach for 1 h. EO water completely eliminated all Salmonella typhimurium on 3, 7, 1, and 8 out of 15 eggs in Repetitions (Rep) 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, even when very high inoculations were used. EO water completely eliminated all Staphylococcus aureus on 12, 11, 12, and 11 out of 15 eggs in Rep 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. EO water completely eliminated all Listeria monocytogenes on 8, 13, 12, and 14 out of 15 eggs in Reps 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. EO water completely eliminated all Escherichia coli on 9, 11, 15, and 11 out of 15 eggs in Reps 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Even when very high concentrations of bacteria were inoculated onto eggs (many times higher than would be encountered in industrial situations), EO water was found to be effective when used in conjunction with electrostatic spraying for eliminating pathogenic and indicator populations of bacteria from hatching eggs.
Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count
The use of electrolyzed water for washing and sanitizing eggshells and an egg washer was evaluated for its effectiveness at a Grade & Packing Center adjacent to a poultry farm for a period of nine months. The test results indicate improvement in sanitation control. Dissolving yolks of broken eggs with electrolyzed alkaline water followed by sanitizing with electrolyzed acidic water produced favorable effects. Also, the use of electrolyzed water has an advantage in that it simplifies the conventional washing and sanitizing process and motivates operators to employ the process more frequently. This sense developed in operators may be a significant factor in the improvement of sanitation control.