Microbe(s): Microbe(s): Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Campylobacter coli
To date, the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water against bacteria associated with fresh pork has not been determined. Using a hand-held, food-grade garden sprayer, distilled water (W), chlorinated water (CL; 25 ppm), 2% lactic acid (LA), acidic EO water (EOA), or aged acidic EO water (AEOA; stored at 4 C for 24 h) was sprayed (15 s) onto pork bellies inoculated with feces containing Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), and Campylobacter coli (CC). Remaining bacterial populations were determined immediately following treatment, after 2 days of aerobic storage, and again after 5 days of vacuum-packaged, refrigerated storage (day 7). While LA and EOA significantly reduced (p<0.05) populations of CC at days 0 and 7, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between antimicrobial treatments when applied to pork inoculated with ST or LM. This study demonstrates that a 15-s spray with EOA has the ability to reduce CC associated with fresh pork surfaces. However, longer contact times may be necessary to reduce other microbial contaminants.
Microbe(s): Listeria monocytogenes
Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of acidic (EOA) or basic electrolyzed oxidizing (EOB) water, alone or in combination, on ready-to-eat (RTE) meats to reduce Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Frankfurters or ham surfaces were experimentally inoculated with LM and subjected to dipping or spraying treatments (25 or 4 C for up to 30 min) with EOA, EOB, and other food grade compounds. LM was reduced the greatest when frankfurters were treated with EOA and dipped at 25 C for 15 min. A combination spray application of EOB/EOA also resulted in a slight reduction of LM on frankfurters and ham. However, reductions greater than 1 log CFU/g were not observed for the duration of the study. Even with a prolonged contact time, treatments with EOA or EOB were not enough to meet regulatory requirements for control of LM on RTE meats. As such, additional studies to identify food grade antimicrobials to control the pathogen on RTE meats are warranted.
Microbe(s): Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli
In 1999 the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (both O157 and non-O157) were estimated to cause more than 6 million illnesses and approximately 9000 deaths each year. However, the most recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report on the sources and incidence of foodborne disease, released in 2004, has shown a dramatic decrease in E. coli O157:H7 infections. Since raw beef products are the most frequently foodborne sources of these pathogens, the results of this report demonstrate that the microbiological quality of raw beef has improved greatly. During the intervening years, post-harvest interventions have continually improved, with new attention to hide decontamination and innovative treatments of carcasses. In addition, a system to hold and test beef trim or ground beef for E. coli O157:H7 before its release into commerce has provided an even greater level of safety. In this paper, we review the latest information on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens on beef, the evidence identifying the hide as the primary source of pathogens on beef carcasses, the efficacy of various hide and carcass interventions, and other developments that have led or have the potential to lead to even greater improvements in the microbial quality of beef.
Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
The article focuses on investigation of the effects of usage of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) with different sodium chloride concentration (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1) for the preparation of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols and hydrogels. To determine physiochemical properties of hydrosols, the pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), available chloride concentration (ACC) and rheological parameters such us gelation and flow temperatures were measured. The samples were also 0.1 w/v). These results suggest that hydrogels and hydrosols incorporated with AEW may be used for food preservation.
Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium
This study evaluated the efficacy of the individual treatments (slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW] or fumaric acid [FA]) and their combination to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium in fresh pork as well as to study the shelf life and sensory quality (color, odor, and texture) of pork during storage at 4 and 10 C. The inoculated pork samples (10 g) were dipped for 3 min in each treatment (tap water [TW], SAcEW, strong acidic electrolyzed water [StAEW], 0.5% FA, or SAcEW + 0.5% FA) with or without mild heat (40 C). Decontamination of fresh pork with SAcEW +0.5% FA at 40 C for 3 min showed greater bactericidal effect compared to other treatments, which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and S. Typhimurium by 2.59, 2.69, 2.38, and 2.99 log CFU/g, respectively. This combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) yielded in a longer lag time of naturally occurring bacteria (TBC) on pork stored at 4 C. This combined treatment also prolonged the shelf life of pork up to 6 days and 4 5 days when stored at 4 C and 10 C, respectively, compared to those of the untreated pork. The results suggest that the combined treatment of SAcEW + 0.5% FA has potential as a novel method to enhance the microbial safety and quality of fresh pork.
Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7 Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes
The bactericidal efficacy of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AC-EW) (pH = 2.30, free chlorine = 38 ppm) and sterile distilled water (DW) on three pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) inoculated on raw trout skin, chicken legs and beef meat surfaces was evaluated. The decontaminating effect of AC-EW and DW was tested for 0 (control), 1, 3, 5 and 10 min at 22 C. AC-EW significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the three pathogens in the inoculated samples compared to the control and DW. The level of reduction ranged between ca.1.5 1.6 logs for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the inoculated foods. However, AC-EW exhibited less bactericidal effect against L. monocytogenes (1.1 1.3 logs reduction). AC-EW elicited about 1.6 2.0 log reduction in the total mesophilic count. Similar treatment with DW reduced pathogens load by ca. 0.2 1.0 log reduction and total mesophiles by ca. 0.5 0.7 logs. No complete elimination of the three pathogens was obtained using AC-EW possibly because of the level of organic matter and blood moving from food samples to the AC-EW solution. This study demonstrates that AC-EW could considerably reduce common foodborne pathogens in fish, chicken and beef products.